Suppose you have a refrigerator with an ice maker or a water outlet. In that case, you’ll need a good filtration system to ensure that you and your family are getting the purest, highest-quality water available. However, choosing the correct filter is critical to this procedure. Unfortunately, it becomes overwhelming since the quality and kind of filter you select will significantly impact your water quality.
Based on how often and how much water runs through it, water filters can last from 6 to 10 months. Since these filters usually remove impurities such as debris, heavy metals, chemicals, and chlorine, the frequency with which they must be replaced is determined by the quality of the water entering the filter.
As not all filters are created equal, some water filters are more equipped to remove specific contaminants than others. That is why it is best that before buying a water filter, you should first know about your water source and what you’re trying to filter.
Finding the appropriate water filter might be difficult because so many options are available on the market, offering different applications. However, you don’t have to get stressed as we have done all the research for you. This article will provide a detailed review of the best refrigerator water filter. In this way, you would narrow down your choices and select the best options for your specific requirements. Not just that, our buying guide will specify all the details you need to look into before buying the refrigerator water filter for your home.
Table of Contents
10 Best Refrigerator Water Filters
1. Best Overall: Waterdrop DA29-00020B Refrigerator Water Filter
Bring home Waterdrop DA29-00020B Refrigerator Water Filter if you want to drink pure water without any odor.
- For extra comfort, this Waterdrop refrigerator water filter is available in a four-pack. It guarantees to keep your water clean and fresh for almost a year or longer than that.
- This is a certified Samsung O.E.M. replacement water filter that is compatible with a wide range of Samsung refrigerators and other refrigerator models.
- To ensure more excellent compatibility both with the Samsung side-by-side refrigerator and the Samsung French Door refrigerator, it is available in two types of packages.
- The DA2900020B model provides clean, fresh water and uses cutting-edge technology to eliminate 99% of impurities.
- The Waterdrop DA29-00020B Refrigerator Water Filter removes 97% of odor, chlorine, bad taste, turbidity, and rust.
- It reduces 99.99% of cysts, 99.6% of lead, 96.6% of edrin, 98.4% of carbofuran, and 96.6% of benzene.
- It removes 99% of contaminants from water.
- It removes foul taste and odor.
- It might develop some leaks over time.
2. EveryDrop by Whirlpool Refrigerator Water Filter
If you are looking for a refrigerator water filter that ensures that your water is clean and fresh, then the EveryDrop by Whirlpool Refrigerator Water Filter is your ideal choice. First, let us see some of the features this refrigerator water filter has.
- The EveryDrop by Whirlpool Refrigerator Water Filter works with various refrigerator water dispensers, such as those found in top-and-bottom freezers and side-by-side refrigerators. It has been authorized for use in the fridge made by JennAir, Maytag, KitchenAid, Amana, and Whirlpool.
- The National Sanitation Foundation (N.S.F.) has approved the Everydrop to remove 99% of lead from water. In addition, the refrigerator is equipped to remove 27 types of impurities from water including, volatile organic compounds, pharmaceuticals, microorganisms, pesticides, and chlorine.
- Its 3-stage filtration system ensures that the water is thoroughly cleansed. The first stage is equipped to remove larger particles, such as debris and rust.
- In the 2nd-stage, the water will be filtered through a fine mechanical filter to eliminate some organic chemicals that cause the water to taste and smell foul. This activated carbon filter is equipped to remove pesticides, V.O.C.s, chlorine, and herbicides.
- Everydrop can create pure, safe water, decreasing the demand for single-use plastic water bottles. The EveryDrop by Whirlpool Refrigerator Water Filter can purify 200 gallons of water in its lifespan, eliminating the use of up to 1500 water bottles!
- Its 3-stage filtration system is equipped to remove 28 types of contaminants.
- The filter removes 99% of lead.
- It is certified by N.S.F.
- The filter sometimes restricts the water flow.
- It gets clogged sometimes.
If you want to cut down on your family’s plastic waste and save money, using filters like EveryDrop by Whirlpool Refrigerator Water Filter one is one of the most effective methods to do so. The filter removes 99% of lead and 28 types of impurities. In addition, it is capable of filtering 200 gallons of water.
3. Epic Smart Shield Universal Refrigerator Filter
If you are looking for a powerful refrigerator filter, Epic Smart Shield Universal Refrigerator Filter is an excellent option. The filter has some amazing features such as:
- The filter offers multi-stage filtration by combining different types of filter technologies. This enables it to remove the most harmful impurities present in tap water, such as microbial cysts, perfluorinated compounds, viruses, heavy metals, bacteria, chemicals, pesticides, and radioactive materials.
- Since it fits into any normal 1/4″ waterline, the Epic Smart Shield Universal In-Line Filter is suitable for all types of refrigerators and other appliances. In addition, with the help of the universal fit, you can replace your refrigerator filter without invalidating your warranty, which is common when you put another brand’s filter in your current refrigerator filter area.
- This refrigerator filter’s Epic Smart Shield Universal Refrigerator filter casing is only 2 inches deep, enabling a tight fit behind your fridge or any other item of your choice, making it ideal for any space.
- The installation of this refrigerator filter is quick and straightforward. It only takes five minutes for installation. All you need to do is simply connect the filter’s input and exit ends to your current 1/4 plastic water line, and you are good to go. Your filter does not require any flushing; just take it out of the box, and it’s ready to use.
- This refrigerator filter fits the N.S.F. standard and is approved by IAPMO, a US-based third-party testing body.
- It has true multi-stage filtration.
- It has been tested and approved by IAPMO.
- It only takes 5 minutes to install.
- This refrigerator filter has a small design.
- It is a bit costly.
Epic Smart Shield Universal Refrigerator Filter is the most powerful among many others in the market. It is powerful enough to remove viruses, bacteria, and even microbial cysts in the water, leaving pure and clean water for you. Moreover, its 5 minutes D.I.Y. installation makes it an ideal choice.
4. Frigidaire ULTRAWF Refrigerator Water Filter
Suppose you are looking for a refrigerator water filter that removes contaminants and at the same time keeps water tasty and for you and your family. In that case, you must buy Frigidaire ULTRAWF Refrigerator Water Filter.
- The Frigidaire ULTRAWF Refrigerator Water Filter contains a carbon-based filter equipped to remove even small harmful pollutants present in water. The carbon-based filter removes any taste and smell of chlorine from water, leaving fresh and clean water for you and your family to drink.
- The filter also removes common contaminants present in tap water, such as pesticides, lead, mercury, and nitrates.
- It is very to install this refrigerator water filter. First, press the button to remove the old filter. After that, replace it with a new filter and wait till it clicks. Then, in prime, the new filter, make sure to run water through it for 3 minutes.
- The reminder light on your fridge does not turn off automatically. The dispenser control’s water filter button can be pressed and held for 3 seconds to reset most reminder lights. The status has been reset once the display goes from red to green.
- The Frigidaire ULTRAWF Refrigerator Water Filter is tested and certified by N.S.F. international. It has also been approved for sustainability by ASPE.
- It removes 99% of contaminants from water.
- This refrigerator filter is certified by N.S.F.
- It is certified for sustainability.
- It removes the foul odor and taste of chlorine.
- The refrigerator filter does not ensure a 5-minute DIY installation.
5. Samsung DA29-00020B Refrigerator Water Filter
This is a certified Samsung O.E.M. replacement water filter that is compatible with a wide range of Samsung refrigerators and fridges of other brands. The Samsung DA2900020B Refrigerator Water Filter is meant to provide clean, fresh water and uses cutting-edge technology to eliminate 99% of impurities. But, first, let’s look at some of its excellent and unique features.
- Samsung DA29-00020B Refrigerator Water Filter provides fresh and clear water by removing contaminants from it. The water tastes and looks fantastic while also protecting the components of your refrigerator from debris. It is equipped to remove 99% of impurities from water.
- This filter is tested and certified by N.S.F. International, an N.G.O. working for environmental protection, safety, and public health.
- It comes in two different filters to be compatible with both Samsung side-by-side refrigerators and french door refrigerators.
- It filters water quickly.
- It is cheap as compared to other refrigerator filters.
- It removes 99% contaminants from water.
- It does not remove healthy minerals from the water.
- It provides a reasonable flow rate.
- Its only con is that it is not compatible with every refrigerator model.
If you are looking for a cheap refrigerator filter, Samsung DA29-00020B Refrigerator Water Filter is excellent. This filter is capable of removing 97.4% of chlorine from water and 99% of other impurities. In addition, it removes any unpleasant taste or smell from water and leaves great-tasting water.
6. GE RPWFE Refrigerator Water Filter
This PWFE Refrigerator filtration system is one of the most advanced filtration systems of G.E. This in-door refrigerator filter guarantees that almost all of the ice and water dispensed by the refrigerator is always pure and tasty. This is done by removing impurities, including chlorine, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, and pesticides. First, let’s look at some of its features.
- Filter functions through activated carbon chamber and fine mesh. The RPWFE water filter significantly decreases the quantity of lead in water and removes chlorine, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, and pesticides.
- It also filters up to five medicines from the water, including progesterone, ibuprofen, and B.P.A., ibuprofen, and fifteen other contaminants. In addition, it has been certified to meet the standards of N.S.F. Standard 42 and 53.
- You have to replace the filter every six months or 300 gallons to get great tasting, clean water all over the year. If you don’t change the filter regularly, the water will become increasingly contaminated. In addition, the impurities in the filter will build up over time, and some of them may escape back into the water you drink.
- It is easy to install.
- It is equipped to remove several chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
- It is certified by N.S.F.
- It cannot use a normal filter.
- It is relatively expensive as compared to other refrigerator filters.
7. Clearly Filtered Universal Inline Fridge Filter
We agree with Clearly Filterer’s statement that their Universal Inline Fridge Filter is the best overall fridge filter on the market.
- Since typical built-in refrigerator filters only eliminate foul smells and tastes, the Cleary Filtered Universal Fridge Filter sets a new standard with its 99.9% contamination elimination, straightforward installation, and worldwide fit with any water line.
- Most typical refrigerator filters indeed remove only a tiny amount of water impurities; however, this refrigerator filter has redefined the standard in fridge filtration with its three-stage process that delivers odor results and exceptional taste.
- The specialized activated carbon media in this refrigerator filter is equipped to remove chemicals such as chloramine and chlorine and pesticides and herbicides. In its 2nd stage, Inorganic chemicals such as microplastics, metals, pharmaceuticals, and radiation are removed by the heavy metal media. At the same time, the third stage removes arsenic and Fluoride.
- The Clearly Filtered Universal Inline Fridge Filter meets the N.S.F. standards, and the company always gives performance data.
- This refrigerator filter is equipped to filter any type of icemaker filtration system and water. The installation of this filter is easy and straightforward. It works with any 14-inch water line, no matter it’s made of braided stainless steel, copper, vinyl, and plastic.
- The Clearly Filtered Universal Inline refrigerator has a compact slender design with a 2-inch thickness. Due to its small design, it doesn’t take much space and easily fits behind the refrigerator.
- It only takes 5 minutes to set it up. You just need a screwdriver, scissors, and a bucket. Then, all you have to do is connect the existing water lines with the intake and outflow ends of the filter.
- The Clearly Filtered Universal Inline Fridge has a 365-gallon capacity. It lasts around a year if you use one gallon per day, which is 2-4 times more than typical refrigerator filters.
- It is equipped to remove a small number of water impurities.
- It is long-lasting.
- It has a small, compact design.
- It comes with a lifetime warranty.
- The only con of this refrigerator filter is that it is a bit expensive.
The Cleary Filtered Universal Fridge Filter guarantees to remove 99.9% contamination in water. Its three-stage system can remove impurities such as plastic, metal as well as foul taste and smell. Moreover, the filter has a compact design, which makes it easy to fit behind the refrigerator. You will only need 5 minutes to install it, and you are good to go.
8. General Electric M.W.F. Refrigerator Water Filter
The General Electric M.W.F. Refrigerator Water Filter is a unique water filter with amazing features.
- Fluoxetine, atenolol, trimethoprim, progesterone, and Ibuprofen are among the five trace medications that the General Electric M.W.F. Refrigerator Water filter can eliminate.
- It also can eliminate chlorine-resistant cysts, as well as lead and 15 other pollutants. You will never be sorry for investing in this one because the twist and lock mechanism makes installation a breeze.
- Setting up this filter does not necessitate the use of any tools or additional work. It can be easily set up without any additional support. The filter may last up to 300 gallons of water and six months with a reasonable flow rate of 0.5 GPM.
- The General Electric M.W.F. Refrigerator Water Filter is only compatible with the G.E. bottom freezer refrigerator and G.E. side-by-side refrigerator.
- It is certified by N.S.F.
- It removes 15 types of contaminants from water.
- It removes lead, chlorine from water.
- Its con is that it is not compatible with any other refrigerator model other than G.E.
The General Electric M.W.F. Refrigerator Water Filter removes 15 different types of contaminants from water, making your water pure and clean. This filter can be used for almost six months or up to when you have used 300 gallons.
9. EcoAqua EFF-6027A Refrigerator Water Filter
The EcoAqua EFF-6027A Refrigerator Water Filter is designed to purify and disinfect unclean water. Your unclean water contains harmful chemicals like chlorine and other impurities such as mud and dirt. The water filter does not just enhance the flavor of the water by cleaning it and removing chemical contaminants, but it also eliminates odors. In addition, the critical elements in the water are retained, ensuring that your body receives all of the vital minerals it requires.
- The EcoAqua EFF-6027A Refrigerator Water Filter contains a coconut shell carbon filter with greater filtration performance and is adsorptive with microscopic holes.
- The EcoAqua EFF-6027A Refrigerator Water Filter provides consistent and effective filtration throughout the life of the cartridge.
- To get the best results, you must replace the filter every six months or after using 300 gallons of water.
- It is certified by N.S.F.
- It removes small impurities.
- It has vetter adsorptive ability.
- It is a bit expensive.
10. Culligan IC 1 EZ-Change Refrigerator Filtration System
The Culligan IC 4 EZ-Change is made to give you the comfort you’ve been searching for. However, contaminated ice and water can cause various health concerns, which is why you need an excellent refrigerator filter. Your refrigerator will last longer and function best than expected with this perfect refrigerator filter.
- The Culligan IC 1 EZ-Change Refrigerator Filtration System has a simple twist-on-twist-off operation that makes changing the cartridge a breeze. In addition, the filter contains quick-connect fittings that make replacing it very easy, and you’ll be done in less than 10 minutes.
- The filter features an increased level of filtration that outperforms prior generations of the system in terms of quality.
- As seen by its long lifespan, the Culligan IC 1 EZ-Change Refrigerator Filtration System filter is unquestionably long-lasting.
- The filter can last for up to 12 months before it needs to be replaced.
- This filter has a flow rate of 0.5 GPM and a high-pressure rate of up to 60 psi.
- The filter is simple to install; however, it must be done with a unique faucet. It signifies that the installation will take more time than filters since some additional steps will be required.
- The Culligan IC 1 EZ-Change Refrigerator Filtration System lasts up to 12 months.
- It removes small impurities.
- It is certified by N.S.F.
- The installation of the Culligan IC 1 EZ-Change Refrigerator Filtration System is a bit difficult compared to other refrigerator filters.
The Culligan IC 1 EZ-Change Refrigerator Filtration System lasts longer than many other filters. In addition, its quick-connect fittings make it very easy to replace or install. However, you will need a special faucet for its installment.
Refrigerator Water Filters Buying Guide
What is a Refrigerator Water Filter?
A refrigerator filter is a primary carbon filter that purifies the water that is produced from a refrigerator. Most refrigerator filters are N.S.F. 42 certified, which ensures that the refrigerator filters can eliminate chlorine from water and aid with the taste and smell. Filtering your water is one method for removing toxins and impurities from it.
Since most drinking water is chlorinated, removing chlorine is an important job. However, there are also many pollutants other than chlorine that are a concern for many households. The refrigerator filters can remove those contaminants, enhance the taste of water, and protect it from hazardous impurities.
How Do Refrigerator Water Filters Work?
Refrigerator filters remove pollutants from water by passing it through activated carbon within the filters. Contaminants and particles are trapped by carbon, which functions as a pollutant magnet. The ultimate result is safe, fresh water for you and your family to drink. However, water filters, like the bags in a vacuum, can only remove a certain amount of impurities before they have to be replaced.
Refrigerator water filters take water supply from your home’s plumbing system and filter it through a number of filtration processes within the refrigerator. Large particles such as soil, silt, and dirt are usually removed by the first water filter. The second filter, which generally consists of a copper and zinc mixture, removes chlorine from the water. The final stage usually incorporates a carbon filter that eliminates any additional microscopic impurities while also improving the flavor and smell of the water. Other forms of filtration that enhance the quality of the water may be available based on the refrigerator filter.
An overworked refrigerator water filter is unable to eliminate dangerous elements that remain in the water. When the carbon in the refrigerator filter becomes covered in pollutants, the water going through the filter remains untreated, providing you with dirty water. Water that flows through outdated, overworked filters can even release some of the impurities that have been captured and return them to your drinking water. However, don’t panic, as maintaining your filter and keeping it up-to-date will avoid this.
What to Consider Before Buying a Water Filter for Your Refrigerator
There are some things you must consider before you buy a refrigerator filter.
- Filter Compatibility
When you’ve decided to buy a refrigerator water filter, compatibility is an essential factor to consider. To tell you the truth, not all water filters work in the same way. They are available in a wide variety of designs. Be careful to examine the model and style of the water filter before making a purchase. Then, you must select the appropriate filters.
Otherwise, you will be wasting your hard-earned money and valuable time. If you don’t want to compromise your safety and health, choose a water filter compatible with your refrigerator.
If you want filtered and clean drinking water, you should choose a water filter that has undergone extensive testing and is certified. The National Sanitation Foundation, or N.S.F., is the official certification to search for. This certification guarantees that the refrigerator filter has passed all durability, performance, and safety tests. It’s something that will tell you if the filter contains any toxic or dangerous contaminants or microorganisms.
- Water Filtration Capacity
Before buying a water filter, make sure you look at its water filtration capacity. Normally, most water filters can filter up to 300 gallons before they have to be replaced. However, some filters filter less than that. The more filtration capacity a water filter has, the more time it will take to be replaced.
- Inline Filter
Suppose you know your water contains a high concentration of one or two contaminants, choosing an inline filter for your ice maker or refrigerator that targets explicitly. In that case, these pollutants will help you notice the most change in water flavor and quality. Many people dislike the taste of chlorine in their ice maker and drinking water, and since so much chlorine can be dangerous to your health, you might as well avoid it altogether. Most chlorine and other contaminants are removed by inline filters, resulting in a considerably more excellent and fresher taste.
Before buying a water filter for your refrigerator, look at its installation instruction. You don’t have to waste extra money on installation, so look for a filter that is easy to install and does not need any additional equipment. Although most refrigerator filters can be easily installed and only need five minutes, some might require extra effort and other things.
- Cost & Warranty
Many refrigerator water filters in the market are not much costly and have all the necessary features. However, do your complete research and choose a less expensive filter as it has to be replaced after some time. Other than that, the most important thing is the warranty. Always buy a refrigerator that comes with a warranty to be returned or replaced in case of any problem.
Advantages of a Refrigerator Water Filter
There are many benefits you can enjoy after buying a water filter for your refrigerator.
- Improves your water’s taste
Refrigerator water filters substantially enhance the taste and eliminate undesirable odors by removing chlorine and fluoride from tap water or other impurities. This not only improves your comfort but in general, it also motivates you to drink more water. Unfortunately, far too many people are unaware that they aren’t drinking almost as much water as they should be. This is mainly because tap water tastes terrible, and bottled water is prohibitively expensive. Refrigerator water filters are a simple solution to this problem.
- Removes contaminants
Your refrigerator water contains a lot of contaminants that are very harmful to you and your family. A refrigerator water filter removes impurities from the water that enters your refrigerator. It also gets rid of the scents and tastes that chlorine and other chemicals leave behind. Refrigerator water filters filter contaminants out of the water by forcing them through activated carbon inside the filters. Carbon, which acts as a contaminant magnet, traps pollutants and toxins.
- It reduces the health risks.
The refrigerator water in our households does contain pollutants that need to be eliminated before drinking. Drinking water that carries a number of dangers can be easily avoided by filtering the water. Drinking polluted water can be harmful to your health. However, if you prioritize your health and don’t want to drink unhealthy water, you must get a filter for your refrigerator.
- Relatively efficient
A single filter cartridge in a standard refrigerator water filter can purify hundreds of gallons of water before it needs to be replaced. Generally, buying a water bottle is significantly more costly than tap water. While a refrigerator isn’t free, it does make tap water infinitely sweeter and healthier without substantially raising the per-gallon expense. You will always have a source of fresh, clean water and ice when you use filtered water from your refrigerator. There’s no need to remember to buy bottled water or replenish a filtered pitcher after each cup.
Refrigerator filters are generally long-lasting. They need to be replaced after six months or a year, depending on the type of filter you buy. That’s why there is plenty of time before you will need to replace your filter.
Disadvantages of a Refrigerator Water Filter
With all the advantages, the refrigerator water filter comes with certain disadvantages that you must be aware of:
- Can be expensive
The refrigerator water filters are made of advanced technology to remove small contaminants from your water. All these filters eliminate harmful substances from water and improve the taste and smell of water. Due to all these benefits, a refrigerator water filter can be a bit expensive. However, you can also find a cheap filter for your refrigerator in the market.
- May Affect Water Pressure
A clogged water filter can affect the water pressure. The water filter should be changed at least once every six months, according to several refrigerator manufacturers. Instead, the mineral buildup or the debris moving through the water supply line from a well or municipal water source can block the filter. The flow rate or water pressure is lowered when the filter becomes blocked, damaging the ice maker or refrigerator dispenser.
- Don’t connect up to your kitchen sink.
These water filters can only be used for your refrigerator. So if you are planning to connect it with your kitchen sink, we would not suggest that. Instead, it’s better to buy an under-sink water kitchen filter for your sink to remove contaminants.
How to Install Your Fridge Water Filter Replacement
Before you plan on replacing your refrigerator filter, make sure you have a towel and the right replacement filter. The towel will help you catch any water that leaks or spills during the process. There are replacement instructions for your model included in your refrigerator manual, which you should follow. You’ll have to unplug the refrigerator or switch off the circuit breaker before replacing it. You will also have to turn off the water supply connection to the fridge beforehand.
How Often Should You Change the Water Filter in Your Refrigerator?
According to manufacturers, refrigerator water filters should be changed at least once every six months or after a year. However, several factors influence how often water filters should be replaced. For example, how soon your water filter fills depends on water quality, water hardness, and how much you use your ice maker or water dispenser.
If microorganisms and minerals get through the filter, your refrigerator water will taste nasty, your ice will smell foul, and the filter will ultimately clog. In addition, a clogged water filter might cause other issues with your refrigerators, such as poor water pressure and a lack of ice.
How do I know if my fridge water filter needs to be replaced?
Though refrigerator water filters should be replaced after every six months, if you notice any indicators of poor filter quality before this time, you should not be hesitant and change your refrigerator water filter immediately. Here are several signs that it’s time to replace your water filter:
- You would know that it’s about time to change your refrigerator filter when your water has a taste similar to tap water.
- The next indicator is when ice becomes unpleasant and tastes bad.
- When your water or ice starts giving a foul odor, it means that the filter needs to be changed.
- Your water pressure will decrease if your filter is clogged, which is a big indicator for its replacement.
- The water filter alert sound or the color of the water changes is also an indicator.
Do Refrigerator Water Filters Remove Fluoride?
Your refrigerator’s filter will not be able to remove pollutants like radium, arsenic, nitrate, and fluoride. The most frequent approach to removing fluoride from your home’s drinking water is to use a reverse-osmosis water filtration system. In refrigerators, the most frequent filters are carbon filters, which remove chemicals that degrade smell and taste. The amount of time the water spends in touch with your refrigerator filter’s carbon determines its efficiency.
What happens if you don’t change the water filter in your fridge?
Many things can happen if you don’t change your filter with time.
- The most important reason to maintain your filter is that it filters 99% of hazardous toxins and chemicals from your drinking water, such as harmful bacteria, lead, pesticides, mercury, asbestos, and cysts.
- These dangerous compounds can impact your fridge in the same manner that they might affect your body. For example, failure to change the water filter in your refrigerator can result in deposit building in the ice or water machine, causing significant damage to your refrigerator. This buildup causes the system to slow down, resulting in poor flow and a change in the taste of your water.
Can an old water filter make you sick?
Yes, your old filter can make you sick by contaminating your water with germs. If you continue using your old filter, you may become ill. However, a German study revealed that the bacteria found in tap water were in lesser quantity than those found in an old filter.
Finding the right refrigerator filter for your home is not an easy task. However, with a bit of research and effort, you would be able to choose the right one for your home. We believe that this article would have helped to make a sound decision.